All article submissions must be house styled in accordance with the Journal's style guide, and must not be under consideration at any other journal. If any part of the paper has been published elsewhere, contributors are responsible for securing the necessary permissions required. All submissions are screened by the editorial panel, and if accepted for further consideration, are subject to a blind peer review process managed by an associate editor. All contributors must be prepared to wait for between 12 and 16 weeks for a final decision on their submission if it is peer reviewed. Please note that, if you are offered an opportunity to revise your paper post-review, guidelines on how to prepare the revised manuscript are available here.

Article submissions must be original research, and must be between 6000 and 8000 words excluding references and endnotes. This document will guide authors on pre-submission self-assessment of their papers. 

Book reviews must be between 800 and 1000 words, and can include references to additional texts, although these should be kept to a minimum. Book reviews must be critical in nature - by this we mean that they need to summarise, locate and critique the argument of the book in reference to the broader field in which the book is located. We do not publish book reviews that simply offer a precis of the book. Reviewers need to consider the contribution the author makes to current and/or historical research within the relevant field; the accessibility of the book for readers of this journal; and the way in which the book makes and supports its contribution to scholarship.

Review essays should be 2000 - 3000 words in length, and should make use of at least three connected books to make an original argument that extends on our book review criteria. Please look carefully at the aims and scope of the journal before considering or proposing a review essay.

If you are interested in writing a book review or review essay for the journal, please contact the Reviews Editors  ( 



The CriSTaL style guide is based on the Harvard Style, with some deviations for house preferences. The journal uses U.K. punctuation and spelling, following The Oxford English Dictionary (OED). Foreign words (except proper names) should be italicised.


  • Use capitalisation in the article title only for the first word, any proper nouns, and for the first word after a colon. (E.g. Making time for writing: Rethinking assessment in a Philosophy course)
  • Headings and subheadings should not be numbered.
  • Indicate main headings by bold lettering and subheadings by bold italic. Third level headings should be in plain text and underlined.


  • Avoid unnecessary abbreviations or acronyms (e.g. higher education, not HE; South Africa, not SA)
  • Acronyms must be spelt out on first appearance. Provide parenthetical explanations: CHE (Council on Higher Education).
  • Do not use a full stop (period) after abbreviations including the first and last letter of the word (contractions): Mr Mrs Dr St Ltd
  • A full stop for: vol. seq. no. ibid. et al.
  • For degree names, use no full stops (BA, BEd, BSc, PhD, etc)
  • Use full stops in the abbreviation of names of countries (except the USSR) but omit them with acronyms: U.S.; U.K. || CHE; DHET; UWC


  • All punctuation should be followed by a single space.
  • There should be no full stop at the end of headings or subheadings.


  • Use square brackets for editorial comments within quotations or for uncertain data in references (e.g., if the publication year or city is ascertainable but does not appear in the book).
  • Brackets are also used within parentheses: (he used to go there [to Tehran] every spring).
  • Include translations of foreign-language quotations in brackets immediately following the quotation (without italics and without quotation marks): ‘Todas somos amigas de desde chiquitas, casi puras vecinas’ [We are all friends since we were small, and almost all are neighbours].


  • Always use single quotation marks. Double quotation marks are only used within a quotation. He remarked: 'This charge of "fraudulent conversion" will never stick'.
  • Please place all punctuation outside of the quotation marks, as above.
  • Quotations of eight to ten lines or longer (or over 60 words) should be indented as extracts and separated from the main text. Such text extracts should not be set within quotation marks.
  • Extracts longer than 400 words require copyright permission.


  • The UK style for dashes requires blanks before and after the en dash.

ELLIPSES POINTS (…) (. …) (, …) (… !)

Three points should be used for omitted text. There should be one space before and after the ellipsis.

If the omitted text follows a completed sentence, there should be four dots, the first indicating a full stop (or period). In contradiction to the three-dot ellipses, there is no space between the last word in the sentence and the first full stop ending the sentence.


  • Dates should be set day/month/year, with no comma in between the elements, e.g., 26 January 1988.
  • In general, use words for numbers that are less than 100, and numerals for all other numbers. Number ranges should not be abbreviated.
  • In-text number ranges should employ prepositions not dashes:

Use from 1924 to 1928 or between 1924 and 1928

Do not use rom 1924-1928 or between 1924-1928.



  • In-text citations should follow the author-date system with full documentation in the Reference section.
  • Every author mentioned in the reference list must be cited in the main text, and every author cited in the main text must be listed in the reference list.
  • Confirm that spelling and dates are consistent between the main text and the reference list.
  • Any parenthetical notes or footnotes should be kept short and to a minimum. Please use Footnotes if needed, and not Endnotes.
  • Acknowledgements should not be included as a numbered note but given its own heading and paragraph following the body of the text, prior to the reference section.


(Pickett and White, 1985; Smith, 1987) [Note: alphabetical order]

Jones's research (1977, 1979a, 1979b) indicates that...

(Kant, n.d.; McGinnis, forthcoming)

(James, 2018: 3)

Single Author with Multiple Sources: (Smith, 1993: 63; 1998: 124-169)

Three or More Authors: (Jones, et al., 2001)

Authors with Same Last Name: (D. Smith, 1981; G. Smith, 1999)


  • The reference list must be in alphabetical order. For multiple listings under an author's name, list the oldest publication first, followed by the other publications, in chronological order.
  • Repeat author's name rather than use underscores or dashes to indicate a subsequent title by the same author.
  • Confirm that web links are accessible as cited.


BOOK: Knight, P. T. 2002. Being a Teacher in Higher Education. Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press.

TWO AUTHORS, edited volume: Becher, T. & Trowler, P. (eds.) 2001. Academic Tribes and Territories. 2nd Edition. Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press.

CHAPTER IN A BOOK: Hermerschmidt, M. 1999. Foregrounding background in academic learning. In Jones, C., Turner, J. & Street, B.V. Students Writing in the University. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 5-16.

Edwards, A. & Thompson, M. 2013. Resourceful leadership: Revealing the creativity of organizational leaders. In Sannino, A. and Ellis, V. (eds.) Learning and Collective Creativity: Activity-Theoretical and Sociocultural Studies. London: Routledge, 99-115.

ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL: Jacobs, C. 2007. Towards a critical understanding of the teaching of discipline-specific academic literacies: making the tacit explicit. Journal of Education, 41, 2007: 1-24.

Kiley, M & Wisker, G. 2009. Threshold concepts in research education and evidence of threshold crossing. Higher Education, Research & Development, 28(4): 431-444.

ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL WITH DOI NUMBER: Clarence, S. 2011. Making inter-disciplinary spaces for talk about and change in student writing and literacy development. Teaching in Higher Education, DOI:10.1080/13562517.2011.611876.

TRANSLATIONS: Cortazar, J. 1969. Cronopios and Famas, trans. P. Blackburn. New York: Random House.

[Do not translate foreign titles into English unless it is the English version that is referred to.]

ARTICLE IN A NEWSPAPER OR MAGAZINE: Phakathi. B. 2011. Teachers vow to fight DA education bill. Business Day, 18 October 2011.

SLIDES and FILM: Mihalyi, L. J. 1977. Landscapes of Zambia, Central Africa. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Visual Education. Slides.

An Incident in Tiananmen Square. 1990. 16 mm, 25 min. San Francisco: Gate of Heaven Films.

Godard, J-L. (dir.) [1966] 2005. Masculin Feminin. Criterion Collection.

PAPERS READ AT MEETINGS: Clegg, S. 2008. The struggle for connections. Keynote address at ISSOTL conference, Edmonton, Canada. 17-19 October 2008.

DISSERTATION: Peseta, T. L. 2005. Learning and Becoming in Academic Development: An autoethnographic inquiry. Unpublished PhD diss., The University of Sydney, Australia.

UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL: Marciniak, E. and Jefferson, N. 1985. CHA Advisory Committee Appointed by Judge Marvin E. Aspin: Final Report (December). Unpublished.

ORGANISATION AS AUTHOR: Democratic Alliance (DA). 2008. PREPARING FOR SUCCESS. The DA’s plan for schools that deliver real opportunity. (accessed 23 July 2012).

MATERIALS IN ARCHIVES: Egmont Manuscripts (n.d.). Phillips Collection. Athens: University of Georgia Library.

INTERNET / WORLD WIDE WEBSITES: Vale, P. and J. Carter. 2008. But Do They Think? Mail and Guardian, 2 March. Available at: (accessed 5 May 2011).